Thursday, 24 April 2014

Book: 'Lucifer's Dragon' by Jon Courtenay Grimwood

Book Review of 
(NEL, 1998 - £6.99 - ISBN 0-340-67473-3) 

‘Sperm Futures were up 129 points on Dow Jones...’ Sometimes tomorrows go down so fast you miss the echo. We all did that hard-sharp-fast Mirror-Shades thing. We’ve all got neat nasal-bridge skin-welts from Mirrorshade OD. All those bright shiny postmodern surfaces, those technofutures stitched in with cutting edge buzzword IT product placements (meta-Nationals, Fuji, Versace, Toshiba, Sony). And WOW – wasn’t it cool? Now the major practitioners have not so much moved out as evolved that text mainframe onto other distinct gaming levels. And all that swirly fractel-stuff is looking as out-of-phase as an old Shamen CD, and who gives a shit about THAT anymore? Well, actually, Maltese-born Jon Courtenay Grimwood does. His is a fast-fiction hypertext netscape of logos and glitches with all the moral complexity of a Pot Noodle. Prose that glimmers with the edgy lustre of a de-tuned flatscreen TV. As narcotically-literate and as MDMA-programmed as Irvine Welch, while simultaneously S&M-primed with enough testicle-gouging, twisting and squeezing to make a grown man wince. He did ‘Neo-Addix’ (1997). He writes for ‘SFX’ and ‘Focus’. This is his most high-profile shot to date. And it’s pretty in-tense!

Grimwood’s Twenty-Second Century is relentlessly unpleasant with a ‘morality so relative it’s quantum’. There’s rising male infertility, hence the trade in Sperm Futures, and the unique ‘Fuck-Baby’ status of naturally conceived and nurtured progeny. There’s genetic Vampyres, Kinderwhores, Edgar Allen Goths, and programmed killware, including a DNA-coded hyena primed to self-detonate on contact with its target. There’s also silver-skinned and usually naked Razz who gets her guts blown out, wakes up in a new younger body, then gets superglued to the floor and raped. There’s Count Ryuchi who owns the CySat media conglomerate dealing customised global Tri-Soaps, MTVids and Religious Holo-Porn. He microwaves his wife into a glutinous gel. Alex, a Living God with the Church of Christ Geneticist who work towards cloning the Messiah’s DNA. His augmented brain works at 97.5% neural level (yours and mine struggle to achieve 25%). Then there’s the good Cop. A gene-splice bio-chip composite made up of elements from Judge Dredd and a hard-wired Clint Eastwood Dirty Harry. The kind of Cop who sees the case through despite deliberate obfuscation from corrupt Power-Conspiracies and a society purposefully flushing itself down the pan. There’s lots of subplots too. Each minor character, from the random murder victim to the hire-pilot with vat-grown artificial eyes, have their full histories.

The plot centres on New Venice, like Old Venice – but created in mid-Pacific by the ‘dusted-out bulimic daughter of a West Coast Crime Boss’ to be an ‘island of elective morality in a sea of dissolution’. It’s furnished with high-tech anachronisms, a Neo-Venetian elite decked out as Doge-this or Count-that, and the Levels – sleaze-zones due for imminent amputation. Once intended to be ‘Serendipity written as code’, it’s now a city rapidly peaking towards overload. ‘Lucifer’s Dragon’ is high-density stuff. And it’s self-consciously nasty. It strives for effect There’s brutal sex. It’s crammed with sharp prose (‘office buildings like endless lines of bar codes’) and flashy prose-devices. It post-modernises postmodernism and gives Mirror-Shades a sudden retro hard-sharp-fast appeal. And in among the teeming cultural references there’s one to Leeds-based multi-culture band Black Star Liner, one to a ‘dub electro / Japmix’ of Motorhead (!) and one to the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence. Last time I saw this outrageous order of transvestite Nuns they were playing live on stage with Chumbawamba at the ‘T&C’. Now there’s an echo worth catching.

Published in:
‘GIG CENTRAL Vol.5 No.12: June’ 
(UK - June 1998)

Wednesday, 23 April 2014

Freddie And The Dreamers


 Freddie Garrity: 14th November 1936 – 19th May 2006

Was Freddie Garrity ever cool? 
Or just the Clown Prince of the 1960’s Beat-Boom pack? 
Whatever, Freddie & The Dreamers had hits, 
and they added to the gaiety of that gayest of Pop-decades.

‘Freddie is the only man I know who can sing, dance 
and remove his trousers all at the same time’ 
 – Michael Carreras
                                     (sleeve notes to ‘What A Crazy World’ EP) 

Was Freddie Garrity ever cool?

Perhaps, during the first two weeks as their debut hit charted. “If You Gotta Make A Fool Of Somebody” was a perfectly respectable piece of Blues from James Ray (a US no.22 from December 1961). The kind of song that harder more authentic R&B bands might have picked up on – the Animals, say, or Manfred Mann, had Freddie not got in first. And in keeping with the expectations of the time there was a sharp keening harmonica riff feeding into the disc. But, from the first TV glimpse, introduced by Brian Matthews on ‘Thank Your Lucky Stars’, it was obvious that Freddie & The Dreamers were the jokers of the Beat-Boom pack.

Not that their appearance immediately contrived eccentricity, sharply-suited with clean shirts and ties, it was more that their sheer physical oddness made any degree of seriousness difficult to put across. Freddie himself was short (‘please don’t pick on me, ‘cos I’m only 5’ 3”’ as the Barron-Knights lampooned) – actually he stood 1.63 metres, more of a 5’ 5.5”, with tight black curly hair and thick black horn-rim spectacles. The missing geek-link between Buddy Holly and Elvis Costello, were it not that both were infinitely finer musicians than he was. Behind him there was a podgy bass-player with a dodgy eye (Pete Birrell), a drummer with slick-back hair who looked like a door-to-door salesman (Bernie Dwyer), one guitarist sporting curious sunglasses (Derek Quinn) and another going prematurely bald (Roy Crewsdon). Their debut album sleeve, with the band peering through the bars of a big brass bed-head in long Victorian Wee-Willie Winkie night-gowns and striped hats caught the tone exactly. Those sensitive to Mod-tuned credibility would flip straight past it hunting for the Kinks, Bo Diddley, Small Faces or Chuck Berry.

But if – in the pin-up stakes, they were the no-hoper band-least-likeliest-to, Freddie & The Dreamers were smart enough to switch that around and turn it to their advantage. They decided to be silly. With Freddie as the silliest of them all. Mitch Murray had already written two no.1’s for Gerry & The Pacemakers, now – for Freddie & co, he almost equalled that achievement, with “I’m Telling You Now” (co-written with Freddie) and “You Were Made For Me” peaking at no.2 and no.3 respectively, both amplified by the most ludicrously strenuous but precisely choreographed stage-moves in Pop history. With each hit that followed matched to its own absurdly callisthenic dance-routine, irresistible high-kicking trouser-dropping eye-candy slotted in against the two-minute thrash of darker more intense bands.

They appeared on TV’s iconic ‘Blue Peter’, singing “You Were Made For Me” proudly wearing their Blue Peter badges, Freddie pausing to stroke studio-dog Shep during the closing bars. For another TV date Freddie even performed the number suspended on a swinging wire. And they were big. They starred as part of the ‘Beatles Christmas Show’ package at the Hammersmith Odeon (24th December 1964 – 18th Jan) alongside the Fab Four, and the Yardbirds, introduced by Jimmy Savile. The Barron-Knights gave Freddie the further accolade of sequencing their spoof of “You Were Made For Me” onto their first big hit “Call Up The Groups” alongside comic replications of the Beatles, the Searchers, the Dave Clark Five and the Rolling Stones (listing the Dreamer’s unsuitability for conscription into the navy because ‘I get sick at sea-e-yeei-yee’). 

Freddie was born in Manchester, a miner’s son (yes, there were miners in Sale!). An enthusiastic schoolboy footballer and a Manchester United fan he was also steeped in the city’s diverse popular entertainment tradition, performing an Al Jolson act for a local talent contest. Leaving school in 1956, a sometime milkman and door-to-door salesman, it was during his engineering apprenticeship at a Turbine factory that he began playing skiffle with brother Derek in the Red Sox, travelling to engagements in a battered pre-war Austin Seven. ‘It was supposed to take four only at an absolute pinch, we once had nine in it’ he later recalled, ‘what with that, a large washboard lashed to the bonnet, a tea-chest bass tied on the back and a big bass drum strapped onto the roof, we looked a crazy sight. If we stepped on it, we could average fourteen miles an hour!’

Later he was part of the John Norman Four, then the Kingfishers (alongside Roy Crewsdon) who – in 1961, became Freddie & The Dreamers. They played raw Rock ‘n’ Roll during their Hamburg ‘Top Ten Club’ residency – and Rock would remain the basis of their repertoire, Eddie Cochran, Ray Charles, Berry Gordy’s “Money” (which every sixties group attempted), and especially Buddy Holly, but they were already introducing comedy elements into their set. Until, signed by manager Jim O’Farrell, they sailed through a BBC audition in 1963 and hopped the second – Manchester, wave of the Beat Boom, debuting live on radio’s ‘Beat Show’, then making their first attention-grabbing TV appearance on ‘Let’s Go’. Some taste of their on-stage demented doodlings are captured in their cameo for the black-&-white movie ‘What A Crazy World’, in which Freddie sings “Short Shorts” in his underpants, then – with trademark manic giggle, he proceeds to pull down the trousers of the rest of the group as the song continues. It had been a mirth-making part of their act since 1959.

I saw Freddie & The Dreamers once. A bored drizzling Blackpool evening with nothing better to do. They were part of a variety bill that meant enduring a comedian, chorus-girls, a bright family-entertainment crooner, then twenty-minutes of irrepressibly catchy Freddie hits. No-one screamed. No-one rushed the stage. It wasn’t that kind of concert. The high-point was drummer Bernie Dwyer desperately jabbing his arm in the air to attract Freddie’s attention. The show halted. ‘J-j-j-jut a minute’ stuttered Freddie in his best Norman Wisdom voice. After a hurried whispered exchange, Freddie led him by the hand off-stage, Bernie walking crouched and cross-legged with an expression of extreme anxiety. The sound of a toilet flushing. And, suitably relieved, Bernie returned to his drum-kit to complete the set. A piece of ‘Carry On’ humour grafted seamlessly onto bouncy hits like “I’m Telling You Now” and their revival of Paul Anka’s “I Love You Baby”, to belly-laugh applause. If the Rolling Stones were cleaving Rock away from ‘light entertainment’, Freddie was doing his best to reunite the two, as part of traditional British seaside entertainment.

The last time I remember laughing out loud at the group was when they did the old Hollywood Argyles hit “Short Shorts” on a typically lavish ‘Thank Your Lucky Stars’ set mocked-up like a swimming pool, Freddie in goggles and flippers, the band part-submerged in a dry-ice stand-in for water. So totally over-the-top bonkers it was a brief joy to watch. But as their career momentum slowed here, unexpectedly they took off massively in the States. Calling off as part of a world tour, a timely showcasing of their antics on ‘Shindig’ and ‘Hullaballoo’ meant that not only did “You Were Made For Me” top the American singles chart (in April 1965), but the matching stage-routine was instantly adopted as a teen-dance craze. When a TV interviewer asked him what his dance was called he paused, and said ‘The Freddie’. Sniffing sales, at the labels instigation Freddie was hauled into the studio with some session-players, and within weeks “Do The Freddie” was also charting, with the approval of dance-master Chubby Checker himself. For a few months Freddie was all over American Pop TV, with two labels simultaneously vying with each other to place his records on the charts…

‘The group are very much general entertainers these days, 
and they rush in and out through the proceedings dominating 
most of the sketches – though some of their first-night humor 
was not of the most delicate’ 
 (‘NME’ reviews their Great Yarmouth Summer Show 
 with Ruby Murray and the Tornadoes, July 1967) 

What next? There was the movie – ‘Every Day’s A Holiday’ (1965), set in one of those terminally grim ‘Maplins’-style holiday camps, it was a flimsy attempt to tie in a miscellany of C-list Pop stars, including John Leyton and upper-class know-it-all Mike Sarne (who’d had a no.1 with ‘Eastenders’ Wendy Richards with “Come Outside”), gathered around a let’s-do-the-show-right-here plot, providing the excuse for bonus glimpses of beat-groups such as The Mojos (“Everything’s Alright”). Freddie and the gang feature as the camp chefs, an excuse for the extended sight-gag comedy sequence in which the Dreamers cook Freddie as ‘dish of the day’, opening the oven to find him inside complaining brightly ‘I’m not done yet’. Whatever slight pretensions to ‘cool’ had by now been totally abandoned for the goofy vitality of straight-ahead slapstick.

Yet there was to be one more chart single. Just to prove they could. A cover of the G-Clefs “I Understand” (an American no.9 hit from October 1961), contrasting the Dreamers’ close-harmony rendition of the New Year anthem ‘auld lang syne’ against Freddie’s sentimentally sincere lead. Later, there were a couple of failed singles, including the marginally amusing “Gabardine Mac” which opens deceptively seriously – like Pat Boone’s “Speedy Gonzales”, before detonating into a manic nonsensical chorus. There’s even another slighting reference to his diminished stature. Then their cover of Sopwith Camel’s zany “Hello Hello” with its airy throw-away non-sequitur ‘would you like some of my tangerine?/ I’ll never ever treat you mean’. After which, as far as Pop was concerned, they dropped beneath the radar.

Life in the Rock ‘n’ Roll fast lane was over. But as early as 1966 they were making moves into straight comedy with their own boy-scout romp ‘Cuckoo Patrol’, before Freddie edged into children’s TV by compering his weekly ‘Little Big Time’ series with Pete Birrell. Meanwhile, Roy Crewsdon moved to the Canary Islands. Derek Quinn went from Pop hits to marketing soft drinks. While Freddie sporadically reformed new Dreamers for revival tours – even commenting ironically on this status by writing a single for the group called “I’m A Singer In A Sixties Band”, while he was also playing Ariel in a 1988 production of ‘The Tempest’. Later he turned up in a 1993 episode of TV’s nostalgia-fest ‘Heartbeat’ as Tiny Weedon, a pint-sized drug-dealing DJ (in an episode titled ‘Father’s Day’). Then on knockabout panel show ‘Never Mind The Buzzcocks’ (episode 6.2, 1999).

Freddie married three times – to Josie until 1973, to Deirdre, and to Christine from October 1990. He was first diagnosed as suffering from emphysema after being taken ill during a flight home from a 2001 New York engagement, and although he scaled back his work-load he died aged 69 while on holiday with Christine in Ysbyty Gwynedd, in Bangor, Wales, from related ‘blood circulation problems’. So, was Freddie Garrity ever cool? Or just the Clown Prince of the 1960’s Beat-Boom pack? Rock critic Lester Bangs – who knows about what is and what is not hip, saluted Freddie & The Dreamers in 1980 for their ‘plenitude of talentless idiocy’ a quality for which they should be ‘given their place in Rock history.’ Whatever, Freddie & The Dreamers had a row of memorable hits, and they added to the gaiety of that gayest of Pop decades…


‘Freddy & The Dreamers, a scatty surrealist group…’ 
(poet Jeff Nuttall spells the name wrong but 
gets the sentiment right in ‘Bomb Culture’, 1968) 

 (Freddie Garrity, 14 November 1936. 
Derek Quinn – lead guitar, 24th May 1942. 
Bernie Dwyer - drums, 11th September 1941. 
Roy Crewsdon – rhythm guitar, 29th May 1941. 
Pete Birrell - bass, 9th May 1941) 


1963 “If You Gotta Make A Fool Of Somebody” c/w “Feel So Blue” (Columbia DB7032) UK no.3

1963 “I’m Telling You now” (Mitch Murray/ Freddie Garrity song) c/w “What Have I Done To You?” (Columbia DB7086) UK no.2 – USA “I’m Telling You Now” (Tower 125) no.1 March 1965

1963 “You Were Made For Me” (Mitch Murray song) c/w “Send A Letter To Me” (Columbia DB7147) UK no.3 – USA “You Were Made For Me” (Tower 127) no.21 May 1965

1964 “Over You” c/w “Come Back When You’re Ready” (Columbia DB7214) UK no.13

1964 “I Love You Baby” c/w “Don’t Make Me Cry” (Columbia DB7286) UK no.16

1964 “Just For You” c/w “Don’t Do That To Me” (Columbia DB7322) UK no.41

1964 “I Understand” c/w “I Will” (Columbia DB7381) UK no.5 – USA “I Understand (Just How You Feel)” (Mercury 72377) no.36 April 1965

1965 “Do The Freddie”c/w “I’m Telling You Now” (Mercury 72428) US no.18 May 1965

1965 “A Little You” c/w “Things I’d Like To Say” (Columbia DB7526) UK no.26, US no.48

1965 “Thou Shalt Not Steal” (cover of 1964 US Dick & Deedee no.13 hit) c/w “I Don’t Know” (Columbia DB7720) UK no.44 ‘Record Mirror’ says ‘Freddie in plaintive mood, C&W-styled, full string section’ (October), Freddie-composed flip

1966 “If You’ve Gotta Minute Baby” c/w “When I’m Home With You” (Columbia DB7857)

1966 “Playboy” c/w “Some Day” (Columbia DB7929)

1966 “Turn Around” c/w “Funny Over You” (Columbia DB8033) ‘Record Mirror’ says ‘softly sung, rather pensive, and absolutely straight… a good lullaby-ballad’ (November)

1967 “Hello Hello” c/w “All I Ever Want Is You” (Freddie original) (Columbia DB8137) Feb ‘NME’ says ‘an infectious, easy-going Good-Time flavour, enhanced by honky-tonk piano and tuba’

1967 “Brown & Porter’s (Meat Exporters) Lorry” c/w “Little Brown Eyes” (Columbia DB8200) May

1967 “Little Red Donkey” c/w “So Many Different Ways” (Columbia DB8348) Freddie solo, written for him by the Troggs, with his own composition on the flip. There’s also a Dreamers single without Freddie “The Maybe Song” (February 1968 – Columbia DB8349)

1968 “Little Big Time” c/w “You Belong To Me” (Columbia DB 8496) Nov. Freddie Garrity solo

1968 “Gabardine Mac” c/w “It’s Great” (Columbia DB8517) Dec

1969 “Get Around Downtown Girl” (Greenaway/Cook song) c/w “What To Do” (Columbia DB8606)

1970 “Susan’s Tuba” c/w “You Hurt Me Girl” (Philips 6006-098) – an unexpected hit in France. ‘NME’ says ‘it’s a novelty piece with a catchy sing-along chorus, and assorted oom-pah passages from the tuba’ (April)

1978 “I’m Telling You Now” + “Just For You”, “You Were Made For Me”, “Over You” (EMI 2694)

1978 “Here We Go” c/w “I Saw Ya” (Polydor 2059041) June


FREDDIE & THE DREAMERS: THE TWO FACES OF FREDDIE (& THE EIGHT FACES OF THE DREAMERS)’ (Columbia 33SX 1577 – 1963) with ‘If You Gotta Make A Fool Of Somebody’, ‘Some Other Guy’, ‘Somebody Else’s Girl’, ‘Yes I Do’, ‘Zip-A-Dee-Doo-Dah’, ‘Drink This Up It’ll Make You Sleep’, ‘I Understand’, ‘Sally Ann’, ‘I’m A Hog For You’, ‘The Wedding’, ‘Money’, ‘Crying’, ‘He Got What He Wanted’, ‘Kansas City’

YOU WERE MADE FOR ME’ (Columbia 3SX 1663 – 1964, re-issued Music For Pleasure MFP1168 – October 1967) with ‘Jailor Bring Me Water’, ‘It Doesn’t Matter Anymore’, ‘Tell Me When’, ‘Cut Across Shorty’, ‘I’ll Never Dance Again’, ‘What’d I Say’, ‘See You Later Alligator’, ‘Early In The Morning’, ‘I Think Of You’, ‘Only You’, ‘Johnny B Goode’, ‘I Don’t Love You Anymore’, ‘Say It Isn’t True’, ‘Write Me A Letter’

SING-ALONG PARTY’ (Columbia SX1785 – 1965)

FRANTIC FREDDIE’ (USA only – January 1966) with ‘Windmill In Old Amsterdam’, ‘Short Shorts’, ‘Zip-A-Dee-Do-Dah’, ‘Drink This Up, It’ll Make You Sleep’, ‘Crying’, ‘Camptown Races’, ‘How’s About Trying Your Luck With Me’, ‘Cut Across Shorty’, ‘Jailor Bring Me Water’, ‘I’m A Hog For You’, ‘What’d I Say’, ‘See You Later Alligator’

IN DISNEYLAND’ (Columbia SCX6069 – October 1966) twelve Disney songs including ‘When You Wish Upon A Star’ and ‘The Siamese Cat Song’, from ‘Dumbo’, ‘Summer Magic’, ‘Pinocchio’, ‘Winnie The Pooh’, ‘Mary Poppins’, ‘Snow White’, ‘Alice In Wonderland’ arranged by Johnny Scott

KING FREDDIE & THE DREAMING KNIGHTS’ (Columbia SX6177 – November 1967) with ‘I Fell In Love With Your Picture’, ‘The Doll-House Is Empty’, ‘Picture Of You’, ‘The 59th Street Bridge Song’, ‘So Many Different Ways’, ‘Children’, ‘The Night Is Over’, ‘There’s Got To Be A Word’, ‘Juanita Banana’, ‘Sing C’est La Vie’, ‘Don’t Tell Me That’, ‘Is It Love’, ‘You’ve Got Me Going’, ‘Look For The Rainbow’ – ‘not for Captain Beefheart fans’ says ‘Record Mirror’

OLIVER IN THE OVERWORLD’ (Starline SRS5019 -1970) cartoon cover, a kind of ten-song ‘Alice In Wonderland’ story-cycle about a clock called Oliver, written by Mike Hazelwood and Albert Hammond (father of the Strokes guitarist), produced by John Burgess, with Roger Greenaway & Roger Cook on hand. Consists of ‘I Wanna Go To The Overworld’, ‘How D’Ja Do’, ‘The Overroad’, ‘You Can’t Go Wrong’, ‘It Can’t Be This’, ‘Day-By-Day’, ‘Harry The Heater’, ‘Undercog Song, ‘I’ll Come Back And See You Again’ and ‘Gimme Dat Ding’ (later a March 1970 no.6 hit for the Pipkins)

FREDDIE GARRITY’ (Bus Stop Records 5002 – 1974) Freddie solo album

BEST OF FREDDIE & THE DREAMERS’ (EMI NUT11 – 1977, C-Five C5 503) twenty tracks including ‘I’m A Hog For You’, ‘Johnny B Goode’, ‘I Love You Baby’, ‘It Doesn’t Matter Anymore’, ‘Tell Me When’, ‘I’m Telling You Now’, ‘Playboy’, ‘If You’ve Got A Minute Baby’, ‘Short Shorts’, ‘Over You’ etc

BREAKING OUT’ (Arny’s Shack Records AS025 – 1978)

THE EP COLLECTION’ (See For Miles SEE299 - 1990) with tracks from EPs ‘If You Gotta Make A Fool Of Somebody’ (Columbia SEG8275 – 1963) + ‘Feel So Blue’, ‘I’m Telling You Now’, ‘The Viper’, ‘You Were Made For Me’ (SEG8302 – 1964) + ‘Send A Letter To Me’, ‘Money’, ‘Zip-A-Dee-Doo-Da’, ‘Over You’ (SEG8323 – 1964) + ‘Come Back When You’re Ready’, ‘Kansas City’, ‘I’m A Hog For You’, ‘Ready Freddie Go’ (SEG8403 – 1965) with ‘Silly Girl’, ‘Little Bitty Pretty One’, ‘In My Baby’s Arms’, ‘She Belongs To You’, ‘Freddie & The Dreamers’ (SEG8457 – 1965) with ‘I Wonder Who The Lucky Guy Will Be’, ‘A Windmill In Old Amsterdam’, ‘Do The Freddie’, ‘A Love like You’ plus tracks from ‘What A Crazy World’ and ‘Just For You’ EP’s

THE BEST OF THE EMI YEARS’ (EMI 0777, CDP7997152 – 1992) 34-track CD compilation, singles, b-sides and album tracks from “If You Gotta Make A Fool Of Somebody” to “Do The Freddie”, “Gabardine Mac”, “Jailer Bring Me Water”, “Come Back When You’re Ready”, “Playboy”, “Brown & Porter (Meat Exporter)” etc

Movies & Clips: 

WHAT A CAZY WORLD’ (Alan Klein, 1963) as ‘Frantic Freddie & The Dreamers’, with Joe Brown & Marty Wilde. Produced a Freddie soundtrack EP ‘Songs From What A Crazy World’ (Columbia SEG8287) which includes ‘Short Shorts’, ‘Sally Ann’, ‘Camp Town Races’ and non-film ‘Lonely Boy’

JUKE BOX JURY’ Freddie was a guest panellist on the BBC-TV show on 23 November 1963 & 2 May 1964

JUST FOR YOU’ (1964) with EP ‘Freddie Sings Just For You’ (Columbia SEG8349) with ‘Just For You’ (performed in Elizabethan dress), ‘I Love You Baby’, ‘Don’t Make Me Cry’, ‘I Just Don’t Understand’

BIG BEAT ‘64’ (1964) compilation film

TOP OF THE POPS’ editions dated 1 January 1964, 10 December 1964, 1 April 1965

EVERY DAY’S A HOLIDAY’ (1965) with Mike Sarne and John Leyton, retitled ‘Seaside Swingers’ for its US release, features “Don’t Do That To Me”

OUT OF SIGHT’ (1966) features “Funny Over You”

CUCKOO PATROL’ (1966) short Freddie Garrity feature film

SHINDIG! PRESENTS BRITISH INVASION Vol.1 & 2’ (1992 ) video compilations, volume 1 features “I’m Telling You Now”

THE BRITISH INVASION RETURNS’ (2000) video compilation with “I’m Telling You Now” 

Published in:
(UK – May 2007)

Friday, 21 March 2014

Poem: 'With Acknowledgements To 'The Observer Colour Supplement' And To Jeff Nuttall


winged slit
on a breeze from Mongolia

beaked cleft
with agate eyes of
and shimmering campaigns

celandine aperture
tousle-gaping with
worms of black obsidian
with tiny mouths that
gasp and heave
like air-drowned eels

the horizontal smiles
of architects dreams
befugged by dreaming similes
of yellow pollen horizons
hazed with aphrodisiac pollution,
sticky with tactile nodules
striding dramatically from oblivion
like small septuagenarian

quivering crevice athrob
with the unprecedented riot of
100,000 people angry
with the aftermath of
spontaneous eruption

O winged slit
on a breeze from Mongolia
I’ve drunk of your wine,
I’m left drunk under
your plethora of

Published in:
‘AMBIT no.81’ (UK – March 1980)

Thursday, 20 March 2014

Jeff Nuttall: 'BOMBED CULTURE'


Jeff Nuttall was the polymath – poet, artist, jazz-cornetist, 
anarchist, and sculptor who wrote the insurrectionary tome 
that defined the 1960’s counter-culture, ‘Bomb Culture’

Jeff Nuttall, manic polymath – poet, artist, and jazz-cornetist is dead, he’s joined the horn-section invisible. Which is tough. Because I always intended getting around to an interview-piece with him, at some time, when I located space-and-time to do it. Now it’s too late. I did bump into him on several odd occasions, always respecting his fiercely diverse energies. First time was probably the ‘Ilkley Literature Festival’ event way back in the early-1970’s where he does an esoteric lecture-thing about aspects of Aleister Crowley-groupies. I was just starting out, baffled, and totally in awe of him. Afterwards, I stammer out how much I love his book ‘Bomb Culture’ (1968) – which I did, and still do, and he peers down imperiously at me from the podium and utters ‘oh yes?’ A solid very corporeal presence, tousled Dylan Thomas Celtic hair flared up against the light. Challenging, provoking more. So I venture that I admire the ‘Early Lobster’ graphic-strip he was doing for the ‘Styng’ counterculture newspaper at the time, and he looks down at me from the podium and says ‘oh yes?’ And I slink away completely defeated, deflated. He was intimidating. I was intimidated…

The Nutt’s ‘Bomb Culture’ is still here on my shelf, it provided an art-anti-art ideological A-to-Z and brain napalm to me circa 1971. His exploded visceral black-ink straight-razor cartoons were essential cultural programming for the time. I saw his gigs, encountered him slumped-drunk one Tuesday in ‘The Cobourg’, a now-torched and vanished trad-jazz Leeds pub, while he was senior Fine Arts lecturer at the Polytechnic. He pursued life merrily and to the full, and drank with not always discreet dedication.

‘Bomb Culture’ is incendiary. A path through art’s subversive parallel universes. Both psycho-autobiography, manifesto, and exercise in style. The cover of the Paladin paperback edition has a ‘Sgt Pepper’-style collage cover, centred around a naked Allen Ginsberg. Behind him, fanning in an arc, are Elvis Presley, Bill Haley, Marilyn Monroe, Brian Jones, Andy Warhol, William Burroughs, Spike Milligan, Timothy Leary, Jack Kerouac, John & Yoko, Jimi Hendrix, Vivian Stanshall. The essential, if unintentional shapers of the culture Nuttall defines. To strum the pages takes you through counter-culture history like clicking through a particularly hip search-engine. His range of references is impressively wide, each one fiercely opinionated.

For example, the Marquis De Sade anticipates dismemberments that the avant-garde will inflict onto formal classical art, annihilating the European aesthetic traditions. And it keeps doing it. Its conduits are the Futurists – ‘the strenuous pantheism of technology’, the Dadaists, Fauves, Bebop, Abstract Expressionists. Nuttall’s heroes are Picasso, Tristan Tzara, ‘the psychopathic genius of Charlie Parker’, Lenny Bruce, William Burroughs. Art is the spirit of perpetual revolution, ‘an explosive planted straight into the human subconscious to blow it off course.’ He notes, with approval, an anonymous 1968 Sorbonne graffiti proclaiming ‘Imagination Has Seized Power’, feeding the spirit of this continuity into ‘my own constructions’ of Action Painting, found-objects and ready-mades shot through with ‘overtones of social comment.’

In his flaring visionary perception, art is the wild-mercury force of perpetual opposition. Because art is ‘irrational in its nature, it can only be irrationally understood.’ He argues that ‘the economic structure works towards stasis centred around the static needs of man,’ but ‘culture, being the broad effect of art, is rootedly irrational and as such is perpetually operating against the economic workaday structure of society.’ Investigating origins, he writes that ‘morality was the province of church and hierarchy, the prime weapons of control and power,’ but ‘at the end of the eighteenth-century religion got caught out.’ It was around that time that ecclesiastical ritual was identified as ‘authoritarian hierarchies which defended exploitation and oppression in terms of the divinity of the social order. For man to be free, god, king, and the pope had to be dethroned.’

Yes, no argument there, but wait, if all morality is the province of the church, must all morality be dethroned too? Must all morality be extinguished in exactly the way that the ‘heads of the French divine authorities dropped into the basket?’ That’s probably too literate an interpretation. Can’t a form of morality exist without the superstructure of religion to enforce it? Surely, a more human morality can be rationally constructed without the superstitious imposition of cosmic deities – can’t it? Maybe back then in revolutionary France, the likes of the Marquis De Sade – newly liberated from divine totalitarianism, had an excuse, but not now after generations of free-thinking enlightenment. Nuttall would say that’s to argue logic and reason. Which is counter to his intuition. Art does not flow that way. To be pure, like jazz, it must be extemporised at the moment of creation, without precedent or consequence. That, too, is a kind of morality. But for Nuttall, it’s more about fierce gesture than parsing minutiae.

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Jeffrey Addison Nuttall was born in the Lancashire town of Clitheroe, on 8 July 1933. It was the place where 4’ 3” variety-comedian Jimmy ‘The Clitheroe Kid’ also started out. But for Nuttall and younger brother Anthony, there were richer memories of growing up in the small village of Orcop in the remote Herefordshire valleys where his father became schoolmaster. Despite his impatient adult energy-rush, he allowed space for sentiment, affection for cheap working-class culture, and the half-forgotten half-remembered music-hall entertainers of his childhood, ‘Chatterbox Annual’, Frank ‘King Twist’ Randle and Albert Sandler’s BBC ‘Palm Court Orchestra’.

 It was as a ‘frustrated’ twelve years old schoolboy, at war’s end, that his own art-story starts out by defining a clear distinction between two events, VE-day – ‘Victory in Europe’, which ends a global conflict with conventional weapons. Business as usual. And VJ-day – ‘Victory over Japan’, which ends in nuclear flashpoint that transfigures the world, for ever. As Timothy Leary explains it, the detonation of the first A-bomb was a ‘fire-break in history’, after which nothing could ever be the same again. Nuttall was alive, on the temporal faultline. And it constitutes a shift in perception, something felt on a cellular level even when not articulated. There in the advance tremors of the newly existential mindset he sees in hipsters such as Charlie ‘Bird’ Parker, the Saint-Germain intellectuals, Norman Mailer’s ‘The White Negro’… and even the thuggish violence of the Rockers. Their dumb insolence is an intuitive response to impending apocalypse.

‘Bomb Culture’ is Cold War on the permanent brink of hot-button ignition. Two corrupt world-system superpowers armed to the teeth in thermonuclear brinkmanship. Shallow capitalism that reduces individuals to passive consumer units. Arthritic Soviet state-surveillance Communism ruthlessly crushing all dissent. Meanwhile, he attends various art schools, notably Corsham and the Bath Academy of Art. Lurch-forward to age twenty-two, and Nuttall is married to painter Jane Louch, working in a school and living in a cottage. He was nineteen, she was his twenty-five year-old tutor at the Hereford School of Art when they married. In November 1956 he hitchhikes back from a trip to London, to hear the shock radio-news about Budapest, as Soviet tanks crush the fragile Hungarian uprising. He donates ten-shillings to the protest-fund. He’d done National Service at Catterick, now he awaits the reservist call-up papers – which never come, that would have taken him off on Britain’s imperial venture into Suez.

Instead, Nuttall plays his cornet as part of the 7 April 1958 Aldermaston CND march, ‘against the death-wish.’ When the marchers eventually are brought up sharp to confront the barbed-wire perimeter of the nuclear launch-site ‘they didn’t walk in and smash it up, as some more realistic marchers had hoped.’ Nevertheless, there were gains – in a sense of generational solidarity, in that ‘they did discover that they were not alone.’ Christopher Logue was also on that first march. He was jailed as a ‘political prisoner in all but name’ for refusing to accept a court order to desist from demonstrating. Yet within a space of years Nuttall already considered the protest marches to have devolved into toothless ritual. To him, it was evident that more urgent direct-action was required as impending extinction seeped into popular culture all the way from ‘Dr Strangelove’ to Barry McGuire’s “Eve Of Destruction”, from Peter Watkins docu-drama ‘The War Game’ (1965), to the Kinks ‘I don’t feel safe in this world no more, I don’t want to die in a nuclear war…’ (in “Apeman”). Fuelling his sense of urgency.

Ever spoiling for a scrap, ‘a verbal bully’ according to Jeff Cloves, Nuttall never probes gently where a sharp jab will suffice. He treats the Labour Movement with sneering derision, scorns their union representatives, as well as their Angry Young aspirational Working-Class intellectuals. He ridicules the cosy-minded liberal left-wing intellectuals such as Ewan MacColl, or Pete & Peggy Seeger for being faithful to the ‘pathetic fallacy’ of placing issues before instinct so ‘mind and passion were robbed of any real authenticity and morality was consequently devitalised.’ He arrogantly condemns them for having ‘constructed a left-wing romanticism based on that patronising idealisation of the lumpen-proletariat that only the repressed children of the middle class could have contrived.’

For him, there’s no future. No future. Which renders all past theoretical structures, axioms, reference points, values and belief-systems void. Marxist and Socialist alike. ‘The only firm political ground for art’ is anarchism. The only art possible is the art of the absurd, of disgust, of transient self-destruction. All that exists is the sensations of now. The first unfiltered instinct is always best. Immediate. Intuitive. The creative impulse, above everything. The only lodestone is a vague and shifting hipness, a Beat art-mysticism. Direct action is the only action that counts. To hell with the consequences. Now. Now is all we have. Now is all that matters. Art no longer has the luxury of decades, or centuries to embed itself into culture. All it has is the moment. Celebrate the now before it vanishes into thermonuclear oblivion. The destination is the journey itself. Nuttall’s vision is a politics of ecstasy, a state of art-led permanent revolution.

In 1962, on a night-train from the ‘Salzburg Seminar In American Studies’, he decides CND has failed, symbolically ripping off his badge. Approaching thirty, impatient for something to start, living at 37 Salisbury Road in Barnet, he’s already accumulated seven unpublished novels (including ‘Chunky Palace’), with hundreds of big paintings and sculptures piled up in his studio. He reaches out, responds to an activist letter in the pacifist ‘Peace News’ (dated 13 July 1962), through which he meets Peter Currel-Brown, then through him Greek-Cypriot artist Criton Tomazos. Meanwhile, sound-poet Bob Cobbing is working at a nearby school as a French teacher.

It’s Cobbing who provides encouragement, and mimeograph-duplicates Nuttall’s first foray into ‘My Own Mag: A Super-Absorbent Periodical no.1’ (November 1963) – a four-page foolscap typewritten ‘paper exhibition in words, pages, spaces, holes, edges and images.’ He utilises ‘nausea and flagrant scatology’ in the form of a long Keith Musgrove poem “Piece Of Puberty” and his own ‘Perfume Jack’ picture-strip. Unlike the then-conventional mainstream cartoon, his energetic vortex of sketches and lines are seldom restrained by the neat confines of the frame, they explode in dripping smearing excess into each other and across the surrounding page. Even as you gawp, the grotesque shock-factor of visceral content spikes deep into your retina as merely another device to jolt reaction from the complacent space-time he’s marooned in. An intellectual revolt, but also an insurrection against the timid stultifying conformity of hung-over 1950’s conventions.

Against the odds the ‘Mag’ goes on to run for seventeen issues, through to September 1966 by which time Jeff’s relocated to Norwich and it’s grown to twenty-pages, costs just one old penny, and includes philo-delphic work from Charles Plymell and William Wantling (all issues are archived at ). ‘My direction was towards the aesthetic of obscenity’ he editorialises, and as early as no.2 (December 1963) – subtitled ‘An Odour-Full Periodical’, the mag is attracting contributors as luminous as William S Burroughs and Anselm Hollo. There’s a Dave Cunliffe strip – ‘The Thirty-Second Put-Down Of Two Literary Gentlemen’ splashed through the all-British no.10 (December 1964). Tracts of Burroughs’ ‘Dead Star’ are in no.13 (August 1965), with Allen Ginsberg, Miles, Michael McClure and Brian Patten. All of these names were – importantly, not yet what they would become. The mag’s very-limited distribution nevertheless sets up connections and kicks-in introductions across the fragmented elements of what would become the arts-underground. People working largely in isolation, doing outsider art, drawn together in recognition of their shared contra-gravitation. Defining what would be.

Peter Whitehead’s jaw-dropping flashback ‘Wholly Communion’ (1965, Lorrimer Films) was recently re-screened on TV, retrospecting the 11 June 1965 ‘Albert Hall Poetry Fest’. It is recalled as a day ‘of pot, impromptu solo acid dances, of incredible colour, of face and body painting, of flowers and flowers and flowers.’ A girl dances to the rhythm of Allen Ginsberg reading on-stage, Harry Fainlight declaims a poem on LSD (‘an immensely charismatic figure… a flaming angel of the damned’), a gruff Alex Trocchi is compering, Adrian Mitchell reads his powerful anti-Vietnam diatribe “To Whom It May Concern”, there’s also Pete Brown, Mike Horovitz, and Nuttall himself (dressed in blue paint). All is grizzled beards and monochrome intensity. Nuttall eulogises that ‘London is in flames. The spirit of William Blake walks on the water of the Thames.’ Watching the film now provokes thinking, could this happen again? Who’d they put on? Of course, the performers who were ingredients of the original event weren’t stellar then – part of its status is retro-perspective. But a comparable cast of incendiary Bardic luminaries doesn’t readily suggest itself.

In honesty, Nuttall’s own poems are not easy. Not always obvious. With few neat hooks to draw you in, or comic punch-lines for sugar-coating. He offers instead a sheer muscular energy uncoiling in a continuity of fleshy images. Man. Woman. Penis (‘in my pocket, my snake is a separate mover, my snake a usurper’ – the ‘only thing that, lacking bone, needs blood to stand up’). Vagina (‘an ancient thing… the deepest cave… the ultimate tunnel’). Flesh. Blood. Reproduction. The ‘pink knot clitoris’ through ‘thickets of guilty hair’ (“Hide & Seek”). Reduced down to the ‘ancient permanence’ of their most primal identity, as glimpsed in the grotesque archetypal Celtic sheelaghnagig on a Herefordshire church (“The Whore Of Kilpeck”). Beneath all human facades of dignity, decency, art, morality, is the moist flesh, the squidgy intestines, the messy-earth animal-reality. Uncertainty. Death.

Within ‘my usual barrage of assonance and alliteration…’ there is scatology, wilful obfuscation and verbal clowning. Creating a sense of mystique ‘I welcome ambiguity, only when it promotes the visibility of the poem itself, in terms of sound dynamics and composition.’ Striking a pose, in “I Stalk With The Razorblade Cranes” he writes of ‘the lunatic is in my skull’, very much like a future Pink Floyd lyric. He announces ‘I am hardly at all concerned with direct verbal/syntactical ‘meaning’’, yet when he does, as in his poem about the schoolmistress outraged by pupils canoodling in tight jeans, he’s perhaps setting up the issues a little too easily? The prim spinster schoolmarm is too obvious a target, in the Totteridge staffroom where ‘electric fire room fug and half-smoked fags, draws out the dank sour mould of menopause.’ Nuttall puts himself on the side of the kids, secretly approving their teen heavy-petting. Their youthful sex. Coming over as a slightly lecherous figure?

‘My driving force has always been a weird sense of duty’ he explains, ‘I have always felt that I must find some way of loving a world and a life which perpetually horrifies me. This leads from the pastoral mood into the difficult areas of s/m and absurdist humour… imagery and technique are, then, tools for me in this mandatory celebration.’

New exploratory tools arrive during the arctic-bitter winter of 1964, when William Burroughs arrives on a fourteen-day London stop-over. They’d corresponded. Nuttall had published Burroughs in ‘My Own Mag’. So he visits him at his Bayswater Hotel where the author of ‘Naked Lunch’ (1959) radiates a presence that ‘cut across me like a diamond’. I, too, recall that cool, almost imperceptible handshake. Burroughs speaks elliptically, shyly, and ‘dealt in clues and hints, never in explanations.’ There’s a pale junk-sick boy there, along with Anthony ‘Tony’ Balch the film-director of ‘Towers Open Fire’ (1963) who’d run into Burroughs (& Kenneth Anger) at the Paris ‘Beat Hotel’. An early advocate of the fruitful collision between art with horror and exploitation, Balch would die in April 1980. Together, the group bring out Nuttall’s worst ‘roaring boy’ contrarian instincts, provoking him to clumsy jibes ‘about queens and drag shows’ with him ‘half-determined to be as gauche and butch as possible,’ to Balch’s ‘hilarity and embarrassment’. This narrative, although exaggerated through Nuttall’s perspective, retains maybe a casual relationship with the truth.

Together, the mismatched crew go out to the drabbest egg-&-chips cafés along the Queensway, and ‘Old Nutty’ gets more than a little bit pissed and abusive. He slyly confides there’s always ‘a disengaged observer in my brain who never gets drunk but always watches for fun.’ A self-knowledge that whatever seemingly spontaneous confrontations he throws up, even as ‘thoughts rattled across my brain like disconnected bursts of machine-gun fire, the snide bastard in me watches me for kicks.’ It’s only later, two short months after the meeting, that it dawns on him, and he ‘got’ what Burroughs was attempting. The understanding ‘was like the Earth opening under your feet.’

After the Burroughs/Brion Gysin model, Nuttall began exploring the cut-up potential that would continue to inform his method, deliberately disrupting linear narrative while throwing up intriguing new random text-configurations and unexpected meanings. ‘The future was present in the subliminal cross-column readings, shuffle-ups, cut-ups, the chain of consciousness, the Jungian racial subconscious through which Artaud communicated with the so-called dead – rational communication comes nowhere near this area of mind.’ In the Dada-spirit of automatic-writing, hypnosis and auto-suggestion, it becomes a cerebral game, breaking down texts in order to scrutinise its relationship to consciousness. Exploring the recurring narratives that shape literature and culture, designed to amputate the authorial voice from the creative process, while yielding results of often startling originality. Putting the high-art idea of the Great Writer thoughtfully composing his Literary Masterpieces, carefully arranging his vocabulary and arsenal of punctuation, under the cosh, as thoroughly – and in exactly the same way as Abstract Expressionism swept away figurative art.

While in one art-continuum he exhibits his work in ‘Gallery One’ with ‘Group H’, at ‘Centre 42’ and the ‘Gallery Angela Flowers’, in another Nuttall perpetrates stunts and happenings in ‘a development of the aesthetic potential in the leavings of Dada.’ Performing a fake disembowelling with other members of the sigma arts group in the Charing Cross ‘Better Books’ basement, where Bob Cobbing was by-then manager (‘Sigma: A Tactical Blueprint’, May 1965). He co-founded, and appeared as part of the enduring ‘People Show’ experimental theatre company (from 1966), in connection with Jim Hayne’s Art Lab, then the ‘UFO’ club, spreading out into spontaneous improv-performances all across the country. ‘The great thing about the plot of this show is that everybody in the show has got a different notion about what the plot is…. it can go anywhere – I hope, the day the People Show knows where it’s going is the day I’ll be bored with it.’

What defines the word ‘underground’ probably came into being in New York around 1964, and irradiated outwards. Inhaling on its way an air of concrete and sound poetry (Cobbing), Jeff Cloves, John Latham, ‘the best of the English Beat-imitators’ Derek Roberts, Martin Bax (of ‘Ambit’), Alex Trocchi… in league with a proto-internet of duplicated-mag interconnections, ‘Moving Times’, ‘And’, Carl Weissner’s ‘Klactoveedsedsteen’, Mike Horovitz’ ‘New Departures’, Dave Cunliffe’s ‘Poetmeat’ (‘they charge Dave Cunliffe with publishing obscenity for gain’), and from the US ‘Yugeni’, ‘Big Table’, ‘Kulchur’ (‘although printed from type, and therefore reliant on a backer’), Ed Sander’ mimeo ‘Fuck You Press’ and the bedrock City Lights and Grove Press. Plus Doug Blazek’s ‘Olé’, and Ed Dorn’s hand-cranked ‘Wild Dog’. If orthodox publishing is the villain responsible for keeping verse caged in elevated academia – the ‘prerogative of literacy’, preventing oral poetry from being the mass commodity it had been in medieval times, the typewriter Molotov-cocktail duplicator-underground, Pop lyrics and spontaneous guerrilla readings are the antidote, liberating it from its ivory tower, ‘freed to the limits of language’. ‘All things coming under my senses quivered with crazy potential.’

What’s all this to do with nuclear angst and CND? Because it’s the spiritually bankrupt Death-Culture that begat Hiroshima, Budapest and the imminent atomic armageddon global-extinction event. The Thanatos-Trip is a deep sickness, a collective-suicide death-wish propelled by buttoned-down uptight fear, alienation and closed-in repression. The need to shatter the somnambulistic fatalism that’s plunging the planet over the annihilation-precipice makes liberation more than a natural right. It’s an urgent necessity. To poet Jeff Cloves, Nuttall was a ‘messianic teacher and catalyst, armed with brush, typewriter and cornet he set out not just to change the world, but to save it’. Protesting ‘there is no moderation in this corner of life.’

So how to combat that bleak social-mindset, how to ‘transform the mental climate of our society’? Through the various agit-prop subterfuges that Nuttall terms Andre Breton’s Marxist-Surrealism, to rupture and smash a ‘political correction through the dislocation of prevalent moral attitudes’ by using psychedelic drugs, by ‘breaking the deadlock of our destructive sickness’ via the Reichian orgasm, and through shock-&-awe art-provocation tactics. Which makes art and poetry more than just today’s consumer luxury hedge-fund investment, but a vital species survival-tool. ‘A cure for the Squares.’ An invisible insurrection. ‘The cultural revolution must seize the grids of expression and the powerhouses of the mind.’ Art must be of itself. ‘The danger, indeed the sickness, was the subjection of art to morality.’ Trusting intuition, Nuttall scorns all attempts at control – ‘art lives when values melt and present a situation of opportunity instead of certainty.’

As the decade draws to a close, and Nuttall already in his mid-thirties, he’s an integral part of art-insurrectionary counter-culture consciousness, through his presence in ‘Oz’, ‘It (International Times)’ as well as regional press ‘Styng’ – all tied in through the pulp-manifesto that is ‘Bomb Culture’ itself, tying its diverse strands into a kind of context of intellectual outsider-tradition. Nuttall does the remembering for us. If ‘Bomb Culture’ itself is flawed, it’s skewed because it was overtaken by the events he was attempting to shadow. As he notes, between completing the manuscript in Autumn 1967, and penning the preface the following Summer, the counter-culture world had changed, and changes seemed limitless. He was cliff-hangered by the insurrectionary explosion as ‘young people, under various pretexts, made war on their elders’ in ‘a sea of coloured shocks.’

And yes, there’s some psychedelic consciousness-expanding gobbledygook that’s very much of its time. For Nuttall makes an unconvincing Hippie. Yet he saw windows of opportunity in its pell-mell global-hypercolour culture of acidheads, phony visionaries, revolutionary bums and peace-freaks, in the ‘trendy frissons of the subculture’, to assert his own dialogue. As always, he works through arguments, discussions, plans, debates, schisms, madness, exhibitions and ego rivalries. If The Nutt’s ‘Bomb Culture’ was the highest point of his career-arc, a magnesium-flare lighting up all it touched, providing an art-anti-art ideological A-to-Z and brain napalm to me and everyone else circa 1971 – with implications I’m still working my way through, the revolution it proclaims mutated into newly unlikely forms, receded, counter-attacked through Punk, diversified in new paths. The CND he so dramatically quit has periodic revival-surges as new Cold War brinkmanships take the world to the edge. Until the Berlin wall comes down, and the USSR implodes…

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‘Bomb Culture’ is still there on my shelf. Still a blueprint to reprogramme expectations, to reinvigorate and fine-tune attitudes. Yet, five decades on from his declaring Year Zero, we’re still here, inconveniently the thermonuclear End of the World didn’t happen. Against expectation, the bombs have not fallen. The last B52 of the Cold War has been dismantled. Despite Nuttall rendering all past theoretical structures, axioms, reference points, values and belief-systems void, Marxist and Socialist alike, we who survive have nevertheless needed some kind of dualistic yes-no, good-bad, right-wrong, left-right moral litmus to guide us through it all. A truer secular morality, grown beyond the need for a superstructure of religion to enforce it.

Despite his aversion to committees he served as Chair of the National Poetry Society (1975-1976), and as lecturer at Bradford College of Art he served on the Yorkshire Arts Lit Panel where he supported my own ‘Eight Miles Higher’ publishing ventures. A rearguard action against the ‘slow disillusionment’ of what he terms ‘swingback’. In 1981 he became head of fine art at Liverpool Polytechnic. As an actor he could be seen in some forty movies and TV shows. He was Friar Tuck in a 1991 ‘Robin Hood’ with Uma Thurman and Edward Fox. Mr Wilson in ‘All Creatures Great & Small’. Rossiter in the ‘Bring Me The Head Of Arthur Daley’ episode of ‘Minder’ (1994). As Club Owner ‘Percy Murray’ in ‘Scandal’ (1989), the film about the Profumo affair. A lusty Landlord in ‘The Fortunes & Misfortunes Of Moll Flanders’ (1996). Dr Arkon to Pierce Brosnan’s James Bond in ‘The World Is Not Enough’ (1999). As well as an episode of ‘Holby’, and an eccentric Lord in ‘Auf Weidershen Pet’. All strong character parts. He was a strong character. How they square with his art, I don’t know. Maybe because ‘I am not a rock, why should I be rigid?’ But they were fun to do. And they fund ongoing art projects.

Some many years later I witness him again, at his confrontational September 1990 art-exhibitions in ‘Lumb Bank’ Halifax. The ‘Jeff Nuttall Retrospective 1950-‘90’ is a sensory Blackpool Golden Mile of perverse and diabolical delights in a labyrinthine multi-unit ex-Mill complex – where his garish vivid paint-jobs trail-entrails through the ‘Dean Clough’ Gallery. ‘Ah – the hands of a genius, the breath of a drunk, and the touch of a dog’s tongue.’ From ‘Saturday Dance’ (1950), gouache, watercolours, linocuts, ceramic and mixed-media. His ink-drawn ‘Christ Figure’ is a penis. And he still outrages. A woman Fem-activist just wanders in, and is so outraged at the perceived sexist excess of one of his pieces – ‘Interiors: Suit-Case Stuffed With Torsos & Body-Parts’ exhibit, as ‘incitement to violence’, that – while I watch, she simply hefts it from the wall, walks out carrying it, and vanishes. Even as Nuttall is in mid-tirade, oscillating between perhaps amusement, and calculating the publicity value, against the loss of this painting. As earlier he’d bragged how work by Burroughs ‘and myself’ were confiscated by the police from Indica Bookshop, as a rite of passage. I don’t intervene, just observe.

A startlingly good exhibition. Sad and disturbing in equal parts, for Nuttall’s continuity is made up of huge absurdist energies, a life-affirming sensuality reeking with reality, yet hung over into a time of cultural somnambulism and blandness. I come out abuzz with the stuff, psychically re-charged, fine-tuned and ready to re-paint Yorkshire with new spectrums. He might have been sometimes mistaken, he might have been frequently wrong, but his energies are awesome. During his final years he shifted to the Celtic hinterland of Abergavenny, Monmouthshire where, inevitably he gravitated a writers collective around himself, and gave ‘chapter and verse’ of its meetings text-format in a lengthy essay to the ‘Observer’ (19 December 1993). He died on a Sunday – 4 January 2004, while leaving the ‘Hen & Chicks’ Pub where his Trad band had played lunchtime sets replicating his lifelong love of ‘blood-curdling music, full of gutbucket growls, glissandos and unadultered whorehouse lechery’.

Shall I tell you a secret? You must come close, bend very close, you need your ear to the ground to catch Nuttall’s contradictions. His very bones throb with gusty thoughts. He is fleshily corporeal and easily roused. Antagonistic, with a combative, confrontational alpha-male challenge that searches out weakness in potential rivals, based not on any of the regular status criteria, but a vaguely indefinable shifting measure of hipness. Contempt for, and a shit-radar for phoneys, poseurs and soft-left liberals. ‘Global Tapestry no.29’ published a taste-tingling posthumous Jeff Nuttall section, with Jeff Cloves catching Nuttall’s magnificent contradictions exactly as I remember them (‘flamboyant, effortlessly witty and an instinctive mimic’), as well as all that additional shambling anarcho-chaos elsewhere in the issue, seemingly untouched by the corrosion of years.

I met Nuttall. I felt considerably honoured. I think I said so. I meant to (Nuttall said these things about Burroughs). Elsewhere, in correspondence, poet Pete Faulkner also volunteers memories of meetings with Nuttall, more intimate than mine ever were. But then again, Pete is far prettier than I ever was.

We need awkward oddnesses like Jeff Nuttall. His loss diminishes us all…

Jeff Nuttall, manic polymath – poet, artist, and jazz-cornetist is dead, he’s joined the horn-section invisible. So Greg Corso is also dead. Adrian Henri’s no longer around either. It’s strangely unsettling. What’s going on? Is this just subjective Old Farticus-whinge yeah-yeah, or are we really becalmed in a corrosively bland time-zone? Where’s the insurrectionary anger, stupid surrealism, agit-anarcho-politico and ludicrous energy-levels of the Poetry Underground Presses roaring out of the 1960’s, or the Ranting Punk/Industrial xerox-zines of the 1970s/80’s with their insolent black cut-ups? Where are the magazines feeding off/plugging into the Animal Rights, anti-Global/Capitalism Movements? Where’s the trans-European multi-cultural kiss of shiny new century newness? On websites? On social media? If it’s out there, I’m not seeing it…! or is it just me?

(8 July 1933 – 4 January 2004) 

1963 – ‘POEMS’ Jett Nuttall & Keith Musgrove

1963 – ‘THE LIMBLESS VIRTUOSO’ by Jeff Nuttall & Keith Musgrove

1963 – ‘THE CHANGE’ by Allen Ginsberg. Published by Jeff Nuttall through the Writers Forum. Written on a train in Japan, the poem records Ginsberg’s realisation that meditation, not drugs, can better assist his enlightenment. To Nuttall it is ‘a poem whose colossal importance has scarcely yet been realised’ (in ‘Bomb Culture’)

1964 – ‘ROCK POT (ROCKPOT)’ Privately Printed 4to 16pp xerox style sheets. A poetry magazine featuring tough, raw poems by class 4C (‘Produced By 4c’) of an unnamed Yorkshire secondary school where Jeff Nuttall taught in 1964/1965. He was effectively editor (although not named). Contributors from the class of 1964 include Sonia Tofton, John Sterry, Fred Wonfer, Jennifer Johns, Gina Larkins, Keith Law and Dougie Tyldesley

1965 – ‘SON OF ROCK POT (ROCKPOT)’ by Jeff Nuttall (Privately Printed) 4to. 16pp xerox sheets. A follow-up featuring poems ‘Produced By 4c… from the class of 1965’ including Terry Allsopp, Robert Burgess, Darylin Foskett, Helen Tyler and Stephen Dummer. In his editor’s note Nuttall writes ‘More than ten years ago... Allen Ginsberg wrote a long poem about his generation called ‘Howl’… ten weeks ago...the Who made a record about their generation (which is, more or less, your generation) which consists largely of stuttering. In these poems 4C have borrowed the forms and techniques of Allen Ginsberg to put words where the Who could only stutter’

1965 – ‘POEMS I WANT TO FORGET’ by Jeff Nuttall

1966 – ‘COME BACK SWEET PRINCE: A NOVELETTE’ by Jeff Nuttall (Writers Forum)

1966 – ‘PIECES OF POETRY’ by Jeff Nuttall

1966 – ‘PEACE NEWS (2 September)’ issue includes Jeff Nuttall’s essay suggesting public shock-events as new CND strategy

June 1967 – ‘THE CASE OF ISABEL AND THE BLEEDING FOETUS’ by Jeff Nuttall (Turret Books Hardback, London 85469-048-4) 8vo, pp 63. Limited to 500 copies. Novelette, features the poem “In The Park” later collected in ‘Penguin Modern Poets no.12’

1967 – ‘SONGS SACRED AND SECULAR’ by Jeff Nuttall

1967 – ‘TURRET POETS READ’ Jeff Nuttall with George Macbeth & Kevin Crossley-Holland (Turret Books, London) Tall narrow 8vo (12.5cm x 28cm). Illustrated wraps. 1pp of stiff paper folded into three

1967 – ‘THE LAST TIMES Vol.1 No.1: Fall’ (edit Charles Plymell). Tabloid counter-culture newspaper featuring two Jeff Nuttall illustrations

1968 – ‘PENGUIN MODERN POETS no.12’ Jeff Nuttall with Alan Jackson & William Wantling (Penguin Books)

1968 – ‘BOMB CULTURE’ by Jeff Nuttall (MacGibbon & Kee Ltd, Paladin Granada Paperback edition 1970) Richard Neville writes that Jeff ‘compassionately if inaccurately, chronicles the rise and fall of British Conscientious Objection, with its beery, bearded, Jelly Roll Morton atmosphere, where characters lurch about ‘ill with anxiety about the bomb’, dizzily establishing Golders Green committees for the Abolition of Nuclear Weapons… duffle coats and CND badges symbolised a new generational identity. For the young, being sad about the Bomb was fun’ (in ‘Playpower’, Paladin paperback)

1968 – ‘JOURNALS’ by Jeff Nuttall

1969 – ‘LOVE POEMS’ by Jeff Nuttall (Unicorn Books, Brighton) 4to. Illustrated wraps, bound with string. 26pp-unpaginated. Limited edition of 100

1969 – ‘MR WATKINS GOT DRUNK & HAD TO BE CARRIED HOME’ by Jeff Nuttall ‘a cut-up piece’

July 1969 – ‘PIG’ by Jeff Nuttall (Fulcrum, 85246-016-3) poem sequences ‘how long can they lock out the blood/ stop its seep through Woolworths floorboard vanishing railway lines’. William Burroughs writes the introduction, ‘Nuttall is one of the few writers today who actually handles his medium. He moves pieces of it from here to there using the repetition techniques of recurring themes in music… Jeff Nuttall touches his words’ (‘touches’ intallicised)

December 1970 – ‘JEFF NUTTALL: POEMS 1962-1969’ by Jeff Nuttall (Fulcrum, 85246-057-0)

1970 – ‘OSCAR CHRIST & THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION’ by Jeff Nuttall. Fiction (Writers Forum)

1971 – ‘WRITING FROM LEEDS POLYTECHNIC’ Edited by Jeff Nuttall (Art And Design Press, Leeds) Contributors Include Liz Bland, George Szirtes, Ken Wall, John Willis pp 52. Fourteen illustrations

1972 – ‘THE FOXES’ LAIR’ by Jeff Nuttall. Fiction (Aloes)

1975 – ‘FATTY FEEDEMALL’S SECRET SELF: A DREAM’ by Jeff Nuttall (Jack Press, 461 Huddersfield Rd, Wyke, Bradford)

1975 – ‘THE ANATOMY OF MY FATHER’S CORPSE’ by Jeff Nuttall

May 1975 – ‘MAN NOT MAN’ by Jeff Nuttall (Unicorn Bookshop, 85659-022-3), the preface reads ‘in ’68 the revolution failed…’

1975 – ‘THE HOUSE PARTY’ by Jeff Nuttall, Fiction (Basilika)

November 1976 – ‘SNIPE’S SPINSTER’ by Jeff Nuttall (Calder And Boyars, London, Hardback 7145-108-90) 8vo, 119pp. An attempt to kiss goodbye to ‘Bomb Culture’ in picaresque novel form, of the London of the ‘Middle Earth’ club, and ‘IT’, of Drury Lane and Better Books, the songs poems and books – each afforded its own footnote

April 1976 – ‘OBJECTS’ by Jeff Nuttall (Trigram Press, 22 Leverton St, London NW5. 66pp, 85465-047-4) Chris Cheek writes ‘his earlier work spat from the page with a lacerating edge of neurosis, frenziedly scratching all itches and breaking against rational structures. This new collection oozes into far, far mellower patterns than ever before and seems rather wistful by comparison’ (‘Oasis no.16’) ‘Sunday Times’ finds ‘an impressive gain in development and control’

1976 – ‘SUN BARBS’ by Jeff Nuttall (Poet & Peasant Books)

1977 – ‘COMMON FACTORS, VULGAR FACTIONS’ by Jeff Nuttall with Rodick Carmichael (Routledge & Kegan Publ), an investigation into popular arts. Ray Gosling calls it ‘a compilation of our pleasures in pictures and words from that England George Orwell introduced into the essay and Donald McGill onto the postcard…’ (‘New Society’)

1977 – ‘AMBIT no.69’ magazine includes Jeff Nuttall’s Play ‘Meadowgrass Writhing’. He also contributes poems to no.26 (1965/6), no.48 (1971), no.58 (1974), and articles to no.79 (1979). He’s also in many other magazines, including ‘PRISM’, ‘LONG HAIR’, ‘BULLETINS FROM NOWHERE’, ‘NORTH’.

1978 – ‘KING TWIST: A PORTRAIT OF FRANK RANDLE’ by Jeff Nuttall (Routledge Keegan & Paul, October). A personalised biography of the Music-Hall comedian, ‘very very funny man’ and one-time rival of George Formby – ‘A Jewel On The Nation’s Arse’, which is also the story of Nuttall’s own research as he pieces the portrait together by talking to Randle’s acquaintances, friends, colleagues and relations. ‘What emerges is a beautifully-recorded analysis of the ways in which working-class values are expressed in popular entertainment and are thus ritualised by it’

1978 – ‘THE GOLD HOLE’ by Jeff Nuttall. Fiction (Quartet, hardback, 2119X, £3.95) ‘Sunday Times’ says that it ‘reads like a cross between William Burroughs and Dylan Thomas, with the sad dementia of sex cushioned within the reassuring rhythms of an old dispensation. ‘The Golden Hole’ itself is a pregnant metaphor for a whole range of sweaty passions, kinky gestures and violent obscenities in which the text is submerged’

1978 – ‘THE PATRIARCHS’ by Jeff Nuttall. Fiction (Beau & Aloes, Arc Publications) 40pp, Limited edition of 300 with Nuttall illustrations. A package tour of the spiritual life of the mid-pennines, from the Ilkley Arts Festival to the ‘sudden crags that define England out of the female sea as stance defines man out of the womb’

1978 – ‘WHAT HAPPENED TO JACKSON’ by Jeff Nuttall. Fiction (Aloes Books, 48pp) Thinly disguised autobiographical novelette. Sex, guilt and jealousy in and around Leeds. Good standard Nuttall prose, though not his best

1979 – ‘GRAPE NOTES, APPLE MUSIC’ by Jeff Nuttall (Rivelin Press) poems in three parts, ‘Prayers’, ‘Strategies’ & ‘Visitations’. Edition of 500 copies

1979/1980 – ‘PERFORMANCE ART’ by Jeff Nuttall. Memoirs of The People Show, plus original scripts in two volumes (Calder). He includes a Rose McGuire drawing of a train of cartoon elephants and two dripping penises with the legend ‘piddly biddly boo who are yoo’, which was sketched ‘to spur the author’s imagination’, he interprets it by ‘walking stiffly along the kerb on tiptoe with my cheeks full of milk. Every few yards I spurted a splash of milk out onto the pavement’

1981 – ‘5X5’ by Jeff Nuttall with Glen Baxter, Ian Breakwell, Ivor Cutler & Anthony Earnshaw (Edit: Asa Benveniste)

1982 – ‘MUSCLE’ by Jeff Nuttall, his tenth volume of fiction

 1982 – ‘MANUSCRIPT CORRESPONDENCE ABOUT MUSCLE’ by Jeff Nuttall. Two long signed letters (one handwritten in 1976), to a Ken and Julia mainly about sexual politics arising from a controversial piece by Nuttall in the periodical ‘NOT POETRY’ titled ‘Muscle’. They mainly concern the political incorrectness and abusive strain seen by this couple in Nuttall’s writing – particularly in a lowlife comedian in the story called Terry Bunn who is more Les Dawson than Lenny Bruce. Nuttall’s spirited responses indicate he was trying to deal with ‘the pathetic error of sexual aggression’ but he still regards feminism as ‘potentially destructive as Nazism’. Ken and Julia’s letters are also present in this small archive. Plus a short handwritten signed resume and a typed/corrected page from an earlier work in progress (1976)

1987 – ‘VISUAL ALCHEMY’ by Jeff Nuttall

1989 – ‘THE BALD SOPRANO’ by Jeff Nuttall. A prose-portrait of jazzer Lol Coxhill

1989 – ‘THE NEW BRITISH POETRY 1968-‘88’ (Paladin) with Nuttall’s ‘I stalk with the razorblade cranes, my pinhead reeling / wing power in the white light…’

1999 – ‘ART & THE DEGRADATION OF AWARENESS’ by Jeff Nuttall (Calder Publications)

2002 – ‘WEASEL’ (Jack Press)


December 2003 – ‘SELECTED POEMS’ by Jeff Nuttall (Salt Modern Poets, 264pp) introduction by Roy Fisher

2004 – ‘JEFF NUTTALL: A CELEBRATION’ edited by Robert Bank & Tony Ward (Arc Publications, ISBN 1-904614-08-6, £10 from Arc, Nanholme Mill, Shaw Wood Rd, Todmorden, Lancashire OL14 6DA Tel: 01706-812338)

Monday, 17 March 2014

Live: Utah Saints at the Leadmill


at ‘The Leadmill’, Sheffield 

‘The thing’s hollow – it goes on for ever, and – Oh my god, it’s full of stars!’ breathes David Bowman as he melts through the ‘2001: A Space Odyssey’ (1968) Star Gate and swirls into Stanley Kubrick’s ‘ultimate trip’. It’s happening now on these screens arched around the strobe-drenched ‘Leadmill’ stage as Utah Saints electro-syncopate blips and spatters of “Solution”. Visuals flash up at blur speed. It begins with ‘COMPUTER MALFUNCTION’ then dissolves into psychedelic waves of awesome color.


And already it’s a night of seductive contrasts. Rawhead are made of mutated metal from Manchester, fronted by Dave Hicks who co-wrote “Seven Reasons” with Peter Hook as part of New Order’s spin-off band Revenge. ‘Hey, Sheffield is cooler than Manchester’ he grins through Jim Morrison shocks of hair over a music to dress up and carry a whip to. The guitars lodge midpoint between Motorhead and the Ramones. But there’s a subterfuge of sequencers that kick the melange into new fusions that occasionally achieve spectacular lift-offs, as in “Come With Me” – probably a sexual innuendo, with Dave howling ‘twenty-first century in your eyes’ as the dance-floor erupts.

Then, from nowhere – well, from Leeds actually, Utah Saints inflicted two of the decade’s most audaciously cheeky dance hits into the Top Ten. But they’re raiders, not just traders. The beats are exquisitely agitated, driving the images to distraction, and they perform linguistic origami with their samples. In a sonic promo for the advancement of ludicrous shorts ‘Surfin’ Jez Willis plays with a Sci-Fi gallery of keyboard-axes strewn with a pinboard of lights and digital windows. While DJ Tim Garbutt squats atop his decks to drop phrases and breaks from his twelve-inch imports into the jittery hyperactivity of speed-driven rhythms. The excitement is unreal – in the exact sense that it’s not always obvious who plays what.

Keith ‘Doctor Douglas’ Langley attacks the drum-pads and re-re-repeats the YOU-YOU-YOU-UTAH SAINTS group identification logo. Lee Dyson plays keyboards, and Pelegrino Riccardi feeds frantic percussion. But the Utah’s is a disfigured portraiture, a junk sculpture of exhumed Pop relics, scored, gouged, scribbled and daubed on. Kate Bush, Annie Lennox and Philip Oakey flit like ghost characters from an identity parade – or a firing squad, fed into the mix and deliciously mulched.

They open with “New Gold Dream” – figures vibrate on the screens, “82-83-84”, then “What Can You Do For Me?”, Nintendo simulations of the Planet Fortuna, Elvis 1967, the new single “I Want You”, Arnold Schwarzenegger, and “Gimmie Shelter” – new twists on the Rolling Stones’ war-children classic from the ‘Putting Our House In Order’ (1993, Food Records) charity compilation.

Utah Saints can only belong to the 1990’s. The perfect post-industrial Pop. They finish with “Something Good” and Hal’s ‘2001: A Space Odyssey’ ‘LIFE FUNCTIONS TERMINATED’ punch-line. And for a moment of stunned suspension, the Leadmill noise nightclub communes with the cosmos.

Sunday, 16 March 2014

Classic Album: 'THE SHADOWS' debut LP


There aren’t many classic landmark 
pre-Beatles British Rock ‘n’ Roll albums. 
Billy Fury’s ‘The Sound Of Fury’ is one. 
The other was released in September 1961 – 

 Newcastle. You think The Animals… or maybe Sting or Bryan Ferry. But long before them, Brian ‘Hank B Marvin’ Rankin and Bruce Welch (aka Bruce Cripps) descended from their native Newcastle to play a National Skiffle Group competition in London. They didn’t win, they came third, but when the rest of their Railroaders quintet split for home, the duo stayed. With an astute eye for opportunity they hooked up with Pete Chester, drummer son of popular comedian Charlie whose celebrity-connections opened up career-doors that years of gigging would never have done. The group got to appear on Jack Good’s BBC-TV show ‘6.5 Special’, and even got to make a record, as the Five Chesternuts – “Jean Dorothy” c/w “Teenage Love”, produced independently at the Phillips studio and then leased to Columbia.

It’s 1958, British Rock ‘n’ Roll was in its infancy. As Bruce would relate decades later, they’d not come into the Rock industry, for that did not yet exist. They came into showbiz. Yet despite such mitigation, the record is not very good. There are tap-tap-tapping bongo’s and squeaky harmonica, a repetitive lyric that goes ‘Jean Dorothy, you know I love you’ – little more, in close harmony with built-in Buddy Holly hiccup, and a ‘la-la-la’ break. Flip the record over and it’s scarcely much better, a solo voice for the verse, with harmonies joining for the chorus. Teenage love is a wonderful thing they insist to jaunty acoustic strum, ‘when will I find mine?’ ‘Teenage’ is the vital catchall word, the new consumer demographic. Say it enough times and it’ll connect with the target audience – that ‘pretty girl in skintight jeans’... won’t it? Actually no. For this ‘couple of turtle-doves’ there was to be no happy ending.

 With the group in temporary abeyance Hank and Bruce worked the famous Soho ‘2i’s coffee bar, incidents much later mocked-up fairly accurately when the Shadows play “Bongo Blues” in a sequence in the ‘Expresso Bongo’ (1959) movie. But first, the ‘2i’s visibility got them touring on the same bill as surly young Rocker Cliff Richard – his dramatic stage-gestures choreographed by Jack Good, and they were quick to spot his potential, and astutely up-switch by infiltrating his backing group, the Drifters. Drawing in Jet Harris (with the Most Brothers on the same tour), and schoolboy drummer Tony Meehan.

Cliff had already accidentally created Britain’s first Rock ‘n’ Roll classic single. Intended as a ‘B’-side for the whistling sweet-Pop cover of Bobby Helms’ “Schoolboy Crush”, “Move It” – a song thrown together by Ian Samwell on the top deck of a bus, was recorded with distorted sound-levels. Not that it mattered. No-one would pay any attention. But Jack Good, by then graduating to the independent ABC-TV network, was sharp enough to recognise its potential. He made “Move It” the headline track for his new Saturday evening ‘Oh Boy!’ TV-show, and as a direct result it shot to no.2 in the chart, 25 October 1958. Despite a pretty strong follow-up in “High Class Baby”, each subsequent single charted a couple of slots lower than the previous one, and it seemed as though his star was already waning.

Issued in December 1958, the third Cliff Richard single, and the first to feature the full Hank, Bruce, Jet and Tony line-up of the Drifters was “Livin’ Lovin’ Doll” c/w “Steady With You”, which reached no higher than no.20 on the ‘New Musical Express’ chart on 14 February 1959, way beneath Elvis at no.1 with “I Got Stung”. Things would get better.


From the start it was clear that the Drifters intended to be an act in their own right. Their first group single – “Feelin’ Fine” c/w “Don’t Be A Fool With Love” came as early as January 1959. A marked development on their Chesternuts venture, it still has some way to go. In Ian Samwell’s ‘A’-side song he’d ‘stolen a little kiss’ and was about to ask her for a date. He’s in love and that’s why he’s feeling fine. There’s a full-throated yell before the instrumental break, and the fast-harmonies are tight. Still derivative, but getting there. The Pete Chester-penned flip is more choppy, with stepped vocal breaks and a lyrical warning that love only knocks once.

Nevertheless the Drifters get to feature on his debut LP ‘Cliff’ in April 1959. Recorded ‘live’ in the studio in a single extended take, it allowed space for three group tracks, a first outing for “Jet Black” – with novelty stepped-voices pronouncing the title, plus a frantic Everly Brothers harmony-style arrangement of “Be-Bop-A-Lula”. The third track, the instrumental “Driftin’” – broken by ‘1-2’, shouts and whoops and, on the LP alone, a ‘yeah mon’ in mock-Caribbean accent, was also redone as the ‘B’-side of their July second single. The subsequent studio version of Jet Harris’ moody bass-heavy “Jet Black” (July 1959) is easily their most powerful statement to date, and a clear indication of the direction their future success would take. But it didn’t chart, and they returned to vocals for their third single.

Within months they’d added a further track – the instrumental “Chinchilla”, to the soundtrack EP of Cliff’s game-changing movie debut ‘Serious Charge’. Although, with trilling piano in the mix it’s not yet what we’d think of as their ‘sound’. With the finances of the domestic film-industry balanced on a knife-edge, getting a Pop star a minor role in a movie was a calculated subterfuge to broaden its box-office appeal towards commercial viability. Starring Anthony Quayle as a beleaguered Holy Joe vicar ‘A Man Of Peace, Pushed To The Limit!’, other names – Andrew Ray and even Wilfred Brambell, take care of the acting. Cliff and the Drifters are virtually non-speaking juvenile delinquents who do three numbers in a coffee-bar scene. One of the songs is Lionel Bart’s “Living Doll”. The song that would reverse Cliff’s decline, and become his career-defining hit. The reason Marty Wilde had originally rejected the song becomes clearer when you listen to the original soundtrack version, which follows the songwriter demo where it’s done as a jumpy Tommy Steele-style Rocker. In the studio it was radically redesigned, slowed down. When it was pastiched decades later by the Young Ones – who also took it to no.1 (in March 1986), they were perceptive enough to recognise that, with the strummed acoustic guitar and the echoed vocal clarity, it was Hank’s pealing mid-point electric guitar solo that stands out as a vital element of its success.

Once established, forming the same kind of tight mutually-supportive gang-structure that the Beatles would use, the Shadows became an integral visual and musical element of Cliff’s image and continuing success – outdistancing every other Rock ‘n’ Roll pretender on the scene. Their vocal harmonies as well as twinkling guitars are very much part of the appealing “Don’t Be Mad At Me”. And their TV performance of “Willie And The Hand Jive” starts out with Cliff central, flanked by Hank and Bruce with their backs to the camera, then turning to add the ‘bow-oom, a du-du’ chorus. But more than that, they also set about feeding their singer original ‘B’-sides, album tracks and even hit songs too (clear through to “The Day I Met Marie” in August 1967). They later joked about Cliff’s unshakably single-minded career-focus, yet they were opportunistically slanting their lyrics with an eye to the American market – writing ‘gee whiz, it’s you’ for the ‘Me And My Shadows’ (October 1960) album, spun-off as a no.4 single (in March 1961). And it was the American tour in support of “Living Doll” that brought them into litigation with Ben E King’s Drifters of “Save The Last Dance For Me” fame, adding the final ingredient, when Jet Harris suggested an alternate name to imply their status as Cliff’s ‘shadows’.

When, much later in the mid-sixties, they issued a few vocal singles they were accused of Beat Group bandwagon-jumping (and later still they did a stint as a Crosby, Stills & Nash-style vocal trio Marvin, Welch & Farrar!). But they’d always aspired to do the singing bits too. Their first single as the Shadows, “Saturday Dance” c/w “Lonesome Fella” (1959) was Pop-catchy harmony-vocals. ‘Jump into my hot-rod car’ invites the top-side penned by Hank with Pete Chester, Bruce contributing novelty deep-voice breaks. The flip adds doo-wop backing vocals, reminiscent of the Dell Vikings’ “Come Go With Me”, to Jet’s melancholy lead voice. It was only when these early singles failed to chart, and during a tour with aspiring Popster Jerry Lordan, who plays them his composition “Apache” on a ukulele backstage, that they seriously took the instrumental route. Producer Norrie Paramor wasn’t convinced. He preferred “Quartermasters Stores” – you can’t go wrong jazzing up a knock-about familiar tune. But he was proved wrong when “Apache” nudged Cliff Richard & The Shadows’ “Please Don’t Tease” from no.1 and took the slot (20 August 1960) where it stayed for six weeks, setting the bar for the British Rock guitar for a decade.

Bert Weedon’s contribution to Rock history was his guitar-tutor ‘Play In A Day’. When I saw him perform as part of a ‘Seaside Special’ variety show in Scarborough, with some sleight of hand he announced ‘this is a tune I recorded, which got to no.1’, to polite applause. Well yes, he did record “Apache”, and it did get to no.1. But not for him!

The theory was that girls drooled over the dishy fan-mag photo-spreads of Cliff, as the boy’s studied Hank’s fingering on the fret of his red Fender Stratocaster, while practicing the Shadows stylish lock-step choreography. But the Shadows didn’t have the scene entirely to themselves. There were others, fondly recalled in such magazines of ‘Beat Instrumental’ – the Ventures, String-a-longs, Spotnicks, Joe Meek’s Fabulous Flee-Rekkers, and later, the Dakotas. But with each new single – “Man Of Mystery” (no.5, November 1960), “FBI” (no.6, February 1961), “Frightened City” (no.3, May 1961), “Kon-Tiki” (no.1, September 1961) and “The Savage” (no.10, November 1961), the dramatic rhythm-led Shadows tightness put them streets ahead. Everyone aspired to the Shadows polished side-step presentation and clean tremolo guitar style – clear up until Jimi Hendrix altered the rules by deliberately utilising feedback and distortion. Even John Lennon refused to appear on-stage wearing his glasses in case it was thought he was aping Hank!


My cousin Martin played bass along to Shadows records in his bedroom in Bridlington. It was his copy of ‘The Shadows’ debut album (September 1961) that I first heard. As the sleeve photo shows, it is also the only original album that features the ‘classic’ line-up of Hank, Bruce, Jet and Tony. Jet Harris is leaning nonchalantly on the neck of his bass, reading something that might be a fan-letter. Hank, in trademark horn-rim specs glances across at it from the right. Bruce sits in a chair, he’s the only group-member who seems aware of the camera, smiling a lopsided grin into the lens. Tony sits preoccupied on a cushion on the floor, beside his snare-drum, arm resting on his knees. The photo is one of a sequence taken at the photo-shoot, others have cropped up elsewhere, including one on the cover of ‘The Shadows: Just About As Good As It Gets’, a CD compilation issued in 2011. Look closer, they’re casually dressed in patterned sweaters, Tony wears white sneakers. Unlikely musical revolutionaries.

Turn the sleeve over and there’s an insert black-and-white photo of the group backing Cliff in dramatic pose, to accompany Cliff’s liner notes. Placed on either side of the text are two more photos, Hank and Jet on the left, Bruce and Tony on the right. At the foot of the text, dividing the track-listing is a photo of the group with producer Norrie Paramor. And on the album grooves they persist with vocal cuts too. Jet appealingly sings lead harmony-voice on “All My Sorrows”, lyrically adapting the traditional “All My Trials” long before it became part of the Bob Dylan-era folkie repertoire… and before Elvis did it as a segment of his Mickey Newbury-penned “American Trilogy”. The Shads were there first. Well – almost, they’d originally found and adapted the song, minus its social-political references, from a version by the Kingston Trio, applying what Hank termed the Railroaders’ Skiffle-approach of using acoustic Folk or Work songs. Next, Hank sings lead on their version of the Crickets’ “Baby My Heart”. With no lyric-sheet to hand he simply sings the same verse twice. Then Bruce croons a cheesy “That’s My Desire” on side two, an oldie they’d picked up from a Dion & The Belmonts song-publishers import.

 But first, opening side one, “Shadoogie” is a determined opening statement of intent. About as perfect a representation of the Shadows ‘sound’ as anyone could have hoped for. It was adapted by all four group members using “Guitar Boogie” – an Arthur Smith instrumental from 1948, as template. In fact they’d been performing the original as part of their stage routine up until a month prior to the first album sessions, and captured it live for a BBC Light Programme ‘Saturday Club’ broadcast – as the Drifters, as early as 1959. It had also been done as a chart hit by Bert Weedon as “Guitar Boogie Shuffle” – reaching no.10 on 6 June 1959. But for the album they reconfigure the track dramatically until it has all the sharp up-tempo signature flourishes of their best singles.

 “Blue Star” is more reflective, indicating that they can take other’s material, and reweave it into their own. “Nivram” – another group original, it’s giveaway title spelling ‘Marvin’ backwards, moves around an effortlessly memorable melody-line, with Bruce and Hank – on a Gretsch, playing close dual guitar, with strong walking bass mid-section and a slick hook that was made to soundtrack the animated opening credit sequence of a hip caper movie, or a TV secret agent series. “See You In My Drums” is a Tony Meehan showcase, its percussive solos looking forward to the precise fills on “Diamonds” or “Scarlet O’Hara”, defined by guitar quotes. Closing side one, “Stand Up And Say That” – also written by Hank, borrows the Floyd Cramer Steinway piano style, as an ingredient to add variety.

Flip the album over and “Gonzales” – with Hank on Fender Stratocaster and Bruce playing acoustic, has something of the free-spirited Western-movie ‘theme’ harking back to “Shane” and “Giant” from ‘The Shadows’ EP of January 1960. An extended-play quartet of titles that precedes, and predicts “Apache” by six months. “Find Me A Golden Street” with Hank’s chiming narrative lead figure, never became part of the Shadows live set. Restricted to just thirty-minutes on stage, they already had hits aplenty. The only place you find it is here, track two side two on the album. “Theme From A Filleted Place”, with its neat twin guitar hook, shows early evidence of Hank’s fondness for title-puns – preceding “Genie With The Light Brown Lamp” and “I Wish I Could Shimmy Like My Sister Arthur”. “My Resistance Is Low” is another oldie with a long pedigree, from the Hoagy Carmichael sequence in Howard Hughes 1952 film ‘The Las Vegas Story’ and subsequently done by Georgie Fame and Elvis Costello. The Shadows wisely eschew vocals, and interpret it as an up-tempo 1:58-minute instrumental. The penultimate “Sleepwalk” was lifted from Santo and Johnny’s 1959 hit, abbreviated to 2:48-minutes for the tight album edit. A longer 3:11-minute version on the limited-edition ‘Live At The Colosseum’ EP (which also features “Guitar Boogie”), recorded in Johannesburg 23 May 1961 during a South African tour, is allowed to stretch out more effectively. The four tracks from the EP are now included on the ‘As Good As It Gets’ anthology to compare and contrast the two takes. Closing the album, “Big Boy” is a fast guitar work-out, with choppy rhythms and muted shouts of encouragement barely audible in the mix, slowing into the final fade-out groove.

If the album has a sanitised sound, with no hint of distortion allowed to interfere with its sonic clarity, that’s what they were aiming for. It was recorded in business-like sessions at Abbey Road studios. Setting up the equipment, then playing and singing it virtually as a live performance. Producer Norrie Paramor expected the group to come in with a fully worked-out set of arrangements, allowing no space for time-wasting improvisation or experiment. They’d already learned and rehearsed each piece, so the actual recording process was pretty much a formality, with the producer controlling only the sound-balance and mix. ‘We’d go in knowing what we were going to do’ explained Hank later. Although the Shadows debut LP must have been viewed as a lucrative prospect, it was only teen-Pop, and hence not worthy of the studio-time lavished on ‘serious’ music. Yet within weeks of release it was no.1 in the newly-inaugurated ‘Record Retailer’ chart, and stayed on the listings for a full fifty-seven weeks. Now, decades later, it stands as a landmark album in the evolution of British Rock.


Tony Barrow, writing the liner-notes for their first LP ‘Please Please Me’ (1963), makes a point of drawing attention to Disc Jockey Brian Matthew describing the Beatles ‘as visually and musically the most exciting and accomplished group to emerge since the Shadows.’ Barrows goes on to say how Muriel Young had begun to introduce the guests on Radio Luxembourg’s ‘Friday Spectacular’ and gets no further than ‘John… Paul’ before they were recognised. ‘I cannot think of more than one other group – British or American – which could be so readily identified and welcomed by the announcement of two Christian names.’ The other names he’s thinking of are obviously ‘Hank… Bruce.’

As Bruce once related, the Shadows came into showbiz, because the Rock industry did not yet exist. If, a short five years later, by the time the Beatles emerged, there was the semblance of a burgeoning Rock industry there for them, that was at least in part due to what the Shadows had achieved during the interim period. Yet with some irony, what happened in 1963 was seen as the new youth upsurge toppling the establishment stars, even though both groups were very much within the same age-range. Taken collectively – Beatles and Shadows, Jet Harris was the oldest (born 6 July 1939), but Ringo Starr was second oldest (7 July 1940). Youngest was Tony Meehan (2 March 1943), with George Harrison second youngest (25 February 1943). Between the two extremes there was John Lennon (9 October 1940), Hank Marvin (28 October 1941), Bruce Welch (2 November 1941), and Paul McCartney (18 June 1942). It’s not that they were older, it’s just that the Shadows started out younger.

Briefly, during the early months of 1963, they established a kind of unique unbroken record when first Cliff & The Shadows were no.1 with “The Next Time” c/w “Bachelor Boy”, to be replaced by the Shadows “Dance On”, to be replaced in turn by Jet Harris & Tony Meehan’s duo hit “Diamonds”. By then, things were already changing beneath them. Within months the deluge of Merseybeat groups would reconfigure Pop forever. The Shadows, of course, not only survived, but went on to have many more years of hits and tours. But those details belong to another feature. For now, we’ll relocate the stylus to the play-in groove side one track one of ‘The Shadows’ debut LP…

‘THE SHADOWS’ (September 1961, Columbia SX1374 mono, SCX3414 stereo) produced by Norrie Paramor.
Side one (1) “Shadoogie” by Hank, Bruce, Jet and Tony, (2) “Blue Star” originally written by Victor Young as theme-tune for 1955 TV series ‘Medic’, given lyrics by Edward Heyman, a UK no.2 hit for Cyril Stapleton & His Orchestra with Julie Dawn vocals in September 1955, (3) “Nivram” – spells ‘Marvin’ in reverse, by Hank, Bruce and Jet, (4) “Baby My Heart” by Sonny Curtis – friend of Buddy Holly, who he replaced as Crickets lead singer following Buddy’s death, with Hank Marvin vocal, (5) “See You In My Drums” by Tony Meehan, (6) “All My Sorrows” by Dave Guard, Bob Shane and Nick Reynolds, lead vocal by Jet Harris, (7) “Stand Up And Say That” by Hank Marvin.
Side two (1) “Gonzales” by ‘McGlynn’ which is a Hank and Bruce alias, (2) “Find Me A Golden Street” by Norman Petty – producer and songwriter for Buddy Holly, (3) “Theme From A Filleted Place” by Hank, Bruce and Jet, (4) “That’s My Desire” by Helmy Krease and Carroll Loveday, with Bruce Welch lead vocal, (5) “My Resistance Is Low” by Hoagy Carmichael, (6) “Sleepwalk” by Ann, Santo and Johnny Farina with Don Wolf, a US no.1 for Santo & Johnny in September 1959, (7) “Big Boy” by Hank and Bruce

‘AS GOOD AS IT GETS: THE ORIGINAL RECORDINGS 1958-1961’ by THE SHADOWS (2013, Smith & Co SCCD 2480) This valuable 2CD set collects everything the Shadows did across those first years, from the earliest material, the Chesternuts, the Drifters, the full first album, and both sides of their first six hit singles, including all four tracks from a rare live South Africa-only EP plus a BBC session from the Light Programme

‘THE SHADOWS PLUS OUT OF THE SHADOWS’ (2014, Hoodoo Records) the full remastered fourteen tracks from ‘The Shadows’ debut LP, plus the full thirteen tracks from their second LP ‘Out Of The Shadows’ – with Brian Bennett replacing Tony Meehan. With bonus tracks “Apache”, “Dance On” and a ‘Live at the Colosseum version of “F.B.I.”